Chromatin occupancy analysis reveals genome-wide GATA factor switching during hematopoiesis

There are many examples of transcription factor families whose members control gene expression profiles of diverse cell types. However, the mechanism by which closely related factors occupy distinct regulatory elements and impart lineage specificity is largely undefined. Here we demonstrate on a genome wide scale that the hematopoietic GATA factors GATA-1 and GATA-2 bind overlapping sets of genes, often at distinct sites, as a means to differentially regulate target gene expression and to regulate the balance between proliferation and differentiation. We also reveal that the GATA switch, which entails a chromatin occupancy exchange between GATA2 and GATA1 in the course of differentiation, operates on more than one-third of GATA1 bound genes. The switch is equally likely to lead to transcriptional activation or repression; and in general, GATA1 and GATA2 act oppositely on switch target genes. In addition, we show that genomic regions co-occupied by GATA2 and the ETS factor ETS1 are strongly enriched for regions marked by H3K4me3 and occupied by Pol II. Finally, by comparing GATA1 occupancy in erythroid cells and megakaryocytes, we find that the presence of ETS factor motifs is a major discriminator of megakaryocyte versus red cell specification.

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